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Cadmus

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200px-Kadmos dragon Louvre N3157

Cadmus and the dragon

Cadmus is the son of King Agenor and Queen Telephassa of Tyre. After his sister, Europa, was captured by Zeus, he, along with his brothers Phoenix and Cilix, went to look for her. Phoenix returned to become king of Phoenicia after his father, Cilix became the first king of Cilicia and Cadmus went on to become the first king of Thebes in Greece.

It is also said he introduces the Phoenician alphabet to Greece, where it evolved into Greek and, eventually, Latin. He was married to Harmonia, the immortal daughter of Aphrodite and Ares. Their descendants ruled Boeotia after them.

Founding ThebesEdit

Cadmus came in the course of his wanderings to Delphi, where he consulted the oracle. He was ordered to give up his quest and follow a special cow, with a half moon on her flank, which would meet him, and to build a town on the spot where she should lie down exhausted.

200px-Cadmus teeth

Cadmus sows the teeth of the dragon

The cow guided him to Boeotia, where he founded the city of Thebes. Intending to sacrifice the cow to Athena, Cadmus sent some of his companions to a nearby spring, for water. They were slain by the spring's guardian water-dragon, which was in turn destroyed by Cadmus.

By the instructions of Athena, he sowed the dragon's teeth in the ground, from which there sprang a race of fierce armed men, called the Spartoi ("sown"). By throwing a stone among them, Cadmus caused them to fall upon one another until only five survived, who assisted him to build the Cadmeia or citadel of Thebes, and became the founders of the noblest families of that city.

The dragon had been sacred to Ares, so the god made Cadmus do penance for eight years by serving him. At Thebes, Cadmus and Harmonia began a dynasty with a son Polydorus, and four daughters, Agave, Autonoe, Ino and Semele. At the wedding all the gods were present; Harmonia received as bridal gifts a peplon worked by Athena and a necklace made by Hephaestus. This necklace, commonly referred to as the Necklace of Harmonia, brought misfortune to all who possessed it.

Cadmus finally abdicated in favor of his grandson Pentheus.

FamilyEdit

Inachid Genealogy in Greek mythology
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inachus
 
Melia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zeus
 
Io
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Phoroneus
 
Teledice
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Epaphus
 
Memphis
 
 
 
 
 
 
Apis
 
 
 
 
 
 
Argos
 
Evadne
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Libya
 
Poseidon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Criasos
 
Melantho
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Belus
 
Achiroe
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agenor
 
Telephassa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Phorbas
 
Cleobea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Danaus
 
Pieria
 
Aegyptus
 
Cadmus
 
Cilix
 
Europa
 
Phoenix
 
Gelanor
 
 
 
Triopas
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jasus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hypermnestra
 
 
 
Lynceus
 
Kings of Thebes
 
Kings of Cilicia
 
Kings of Crete
 
Kings of Phoenicia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sosis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nepeira
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lacadaemon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SpartaAbas
 
 
 
 
 
Ocalea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crotopos
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sthenelos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eurydice
 
 
 
 
Acrisius
 
Proetus
 
Hipponoe
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zeus
 
Danaë
 
 
 
 
 
Megapenthes
 
Demophile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perseus
 
Andromeda
 
 
 
 
 
Argeos
 
Pyrante
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electyron
 
 
Alcaeus
 
Sthenelus
 
 
Anaxagoras
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hyrmine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eurydice
 
 
 
 
 
Astydamia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nicippe
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Amphitryon
 
 
 
 
Alcmene
 
 
Zeus
 
Eurystheus
 
 
 
 
 
Alector
 
Iphis
 
Helice
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Automedusa
 
Iphicles
 
 
 
 
Heracles
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Itea
 
 
 
 
 
Sthenelius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cylabares
 
 
 
 
 
Iolaus
 
Megara
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Heraclidae(see Heraclid genealogy)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bacchiadae
After Eurystheus, the kingdom of Mycenae passed to the Atreids in the person of Atreus After Cylabares, the kingdom of Argos passed to the Atreids of Mycenae in the person of Orestes (Atreus' grandson)
Preceded by:
None (Title created)
King of Boeotia
Mythic
Succeeded by
Pentheus


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