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In Elamite mythology, their pantheon was headed by the sky god Khumban.[1] Khumban was married to the mother goddess Pinikir.[2][3] Some sources state that he later divorced her and remarried the "Great Goddess" Kiririsha, [4][5] 'Lady of Liyan'.[6]

Kiririsha was primarily worshipped in the south, whereas Pinikir, held her position in the north. Later sources indicate that Kiririsha may have been an epithet of Pinikir,[7][8] thus making Pinikir and Kiririsha one in the same person. So that eventually, by about 1800 BC, the two cults had merged. The cult of Kiririsha also came to be practised in the city of Susiana.[9]

Other deities include:

  • Inshushinak, or Ninsusinak (Akkadian: Susinak, Hebrew: Susi), god of oaths and judge of the dead. He was the National god of the Elamite Empire and consort of the mother goddess Pinikir. He protected the city of Susa.
  • Jabru, lord of the underworld.
  • Lahurati, identified with the Akkadian god Ninurta.
  • Nahundi or Nahhundi (Akkadian: Nahhunte), god of the sun and of law.
  • Napir ("shining one"), god of the moon.


  1. Edwards, I.E.S. Cambridge Ancient History, Volume I, Part 2: Early History of the Middle East [3rd edition] (31 Oct 1971), p.665
  2. Bromiley, Geoffrey W. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia – Volume Two: E-J", p.52
  3. Leick, G. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology, p.84
  4. Edwards (1971), p.665
  5. Lurker, M. The Routledge dictionary of gods and goddesses, devils and demons, 2nd edition (27 May 2004), p.2, ISBN 978-0-415-34018-2
  6. A title dedicated to an Elamite port on the Persian Gulf (near modern-day Bushire, Iran).
  7. Edwards (1971), p.663
  8. Black & Green. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, p.74
  9. Edwards (1971), p.663

Further reading

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