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The Gods of Mount Olympus

The Gods of Greek Mythology on Mount Olympus.

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Modern scholars refer to and study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of Ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.

Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a large collection of narratives, and implicitly in Greek representational arts, such as vase-paintings and votive gifts. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines and mythological creatures. These accounts initially were disseminated in an oral-poetic tradition; today the Greek myths are known primarily from Greek literature. The oldest known Greek literary sources, Homer's epic poems The Iliad and Odyssey, focus on the Trojan War and its aftermath. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, and the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are also preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, and in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.

Archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods, Homeric and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture, arts, and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes.

Family Tree

Olympian Genealogy in Greek mythology
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Uranus
 
Gaia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Iapetus
 
Clymene
 
Cronus
 
Rhea
 
 
 
Coeus
 
Phoebe
 
Themis
 
Zeus
 
Dione
 
 
Mnemosyne
 
 
 
Eurynome
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aphrodite
 
 
 
 
Zeus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atlas
 
Pleione
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metis
 
 
Leto
 
Zeus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Muses
 
Graces
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zeus
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fates
 
Hours
 
Nemesis and Tyche
 
 
 
Zeus
 
Maia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Athena
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hermes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Artemis
 
Apollo
 
Coronis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asclepius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hera
 
Zeus
 
Demeter
 
Poseidon
 
Amphitrite
 
Hades
 
Hestia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Persephone
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Persephone
 
 
 
 
 
 
Triton
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Arion
 
Despoina
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eris
 
 
 
 
Eileithyia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hebe
 
Heracles
 
 
Ares
 
Aphrodite
 
Hephaestus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alexiares
 
Anicetos
 
Harmonia
 
Eros
 
Anteros
 
Himeros
 
Hymenaios
 
Pothos
 
Peitho
 
Deimos
 
Phobos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cadmus of Thebes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Semele
 
 
 
Zeus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dionysus

Cosmology

Main article: Greek cosmology

Greek cosmology

Greek cosmology

Greek cosmology is wide and depicts the universe and the world as having a limit both on it's sky and ground, the sky limit is known as Heaven of Heavens and it's opposite end, which lies beneath all the world, is the Underworld. The Heaven and any other realm above it, are sustained by the Pillars of Heaven while the Underworld and the rest of the world is hold together by the Pillars of Earth.

Locations in Greek cosmology

  • Earth
  • Firmament with the Stars
  • Ocean of Heaven
  • Heaven of Heavens
  • Pillars of Heaven
  • Underworld
  • Pillars of Earth
  • Primeval Ocean

Chronology

Origin and creation of the Universe

Main article: Protogenoi, Titans

Gaia and Earth

Gaia, the Earth itself

Accoring to Hesiod, in his Theogony, at the beginning there was chaos, a yawning nothingness. From the void in there emerged Gaia (goddess of the Earth and the Earth itself). From the void, other primary divine beings emerged: Eros (Love), the Abyss (Tartarus) and the Erebus.[1] Gaia didn't have male assistance, therefore she gave existence to Uranus (the sky) who then impregnated her. The first wave of Titans were born as product of this union. Gaia gave birth to six males: Coeus, Crius, Cronus, Hyperion, Lapetus, and Oceanus; and six females: Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Rhea, Theia, Themis, and Tethys. After Cronus was born, Gaia and Cronus declared that no more Titans were to born.

Overthrowing of Uranus

Fall of Uranus

Fall of Ouranus

After Cronus was born, Gaia and Uranus decreed no more Titans were to be born. They were followed by the one-eyed Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires, who were both thrown into Tartarus by Uranus. This made Gaia furious. Cronus ("the wily, youngest and most terrible of Gaia's children")[1], was convinced by Gaia to castrate his father. He did this, killing Uranus, and became the ruler of the Titans with his sister-wife Rhea as his consort. The other titans became his court.

Titanomachy

Main article: Titanomachy

Titanomachy

The Titanomachy

The Titan Cronus devoured all the sons and daughters he procreated with Rhea, again and again. But when Rhea gave birth to Zeus, she could not see another of her sons devoured by Cronus, therefore she hidden Zeus from Cronus. Zeus was raised in Crete, and when he was old and experienced enough, along with the aid of the Cyclopes, he defeated his father and the titans. Cronus and the rest of Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus.[2] After the battle with the titans and his subsequent victory, he shared the world with his brothers Poseidon and Hades.

Age of Gods

The Age gods is the term which defines the period in which Gods interacted with men, but could not intervene in any of the confrontations or events of humanity.

Age of Heroes

Main article: Age of heroes

Perseus after slaying Medusa

Perseus after slaying Medusa

The age of heroes also known as heroic age, is the period between the coming of the Greeks to Thessaly and their subsequent return from Troy. The age of heroes saw a series of events which would demonstrate the humans did not need to depend on the gods or live their lives as gods demanded, such as Heracles' (Hercules) battle against the supposedly invincible Hydra.

The age of heroes centers on the battles and confrontations of superhuman characters known as demigods, such as Hercules, Perseus and Theseus.

Heracles and the Heracleidae

Jason and the Argonauts

Jason and the Argonauts

Jason and the Argonauts

Been earlier than the Odyssey, Jason and his crew, the Argonauts exploits date back to 3rd Century BC, which was the period in which the poem depicting their adventures was wrote. Jason's voyages are famous in Greek mythology because of the fact, that his crew on the Argo, included various members of the next ge
Odysseus and his crew escaping from Polyphemus

Odysseus and his crew, escaping from Polyphemus

neration of heroes, including Heracles.

The Trojan War

In the aftermath of the Trojan War, Odysseus and various surviving soldiers navigated in search of their home, instead they ended on the island of the Cyclops Polyphemus.

Videos

External Links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hesiod, Theogony, 116–138
  2. Hesiod, Theogony, 713–735



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