Hubris (Pronunciation: /ˈhjuːbrɪs/; Ancient Greek: ὕβρις), alternately spelled hybris, is a word of Ancient Greek origin that means "extreme pride or arrogance". The word often indicates one's loss of contact with reality and an overestimation of one's own capabilities, especially when one exhibits it in a powerful position.
In Greek mythology, hubris referred to actions that shamed and humiliated the victim for the pleasure or gratification of the abuse. It also had a strong, sexual connotation. One of the most well-known meanings of the word referred to someone whose actions challenged the might of the Gods and Goddesses or their laws. This often resulted in the character's downfall, especially in Greek tragedies.
Though it was not specifically defined, hubris was legal term that referred to the criminal act of being hubris. This was a crime in ancient Athens and the greatest one of ancient Greek society. The category of acts constituting hubris for the ancient Greeks apparently broadened from the original specific reference to mutilation of a corpse, or a humiliation of a defeated foe, or irreverent "outrageous treatment" in general. It often resulted in fatal retribution or Nemesis. Atë is the term that refers to the action committed by the protagonist because of their great pride or when attempting to achieve arete.