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Jörð

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Jord
220px-Moder Jord
{{{Caption}}}
General Info
Title(s) Earth goddess
Norse jǫrð
Consort Odin
Parents Annar and Nótt
Sibling(s) Dagr and Audr
Children Thor

Jörð is a Jotun and the mother of Thor by Odin. Her name means Earth.  She is also known as Fjörgyn and Hlóðyn.In Norse mythology, Jörð (Old Norse jǫrð, "earth" pronounced Template:IPA-non, Icelandic Jörð, pronounced Template:IPA-non, sometimes Anglicized as Jord or Jorth; also called Jarð, Template:IPA-non as in Old East Norse), is a female jötunn. She is the mother of Thor and the personification of the Earth. Fjörgyn and Hlóðyn are considered to be other names for Jörð. Some scholars refer to Jörð as a goddess.[1] Jörð's name appears in skaldic poetry both as a poetic term for the land and in kennings for Thor.

EtymologyEdit

Jörð is the common word for earth in Old Norse, as are the word's descendants in the modern Scandinavian languages; Icelandic jörð, Faroese jørð, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian jord. It is cognate to English "earth" through Old English eorðe.[2]

AttestationsEdit

GylfaginningEdit

In Gylfaginning, the first part of the Prose Edda, Jörð is described as one of Odin's sexual partners and the mother of Thor. She is the daughter of Annar and Nótt and half-sister of Auðr and Dagr.[3]

However, scholar Haukur Thorgeirsson points out that the four manuscripts of Gylfaginning vary in their descriptions of the family relations between Nótt, Jörð, Dagr, and Dellingr. In other words, depending on the manuscript, either Jörð or Nótt is the mother of Dagr and partner of Dellingr. Haukur details that "the oldest manuscript, U, offers a version where Jǫrð is the wife of Dellingr and the mother of Dagr while the other manuscripts, R, W and T, cast Nótt in the role of Dellingr's wife and Dagr's mother", and argues that "the version in U came about accidentally when the writer of U or its antecedent shortened a text similar to that in RWT. The results of this accident made their way into the Icelandic poetic tradition".[4]

SkáldskaparmálEdit

In Snorri Sturluson's Skáldskaparmál, Jörð (as the personified earth) is called the rival of Odin's wife Frigg and his other giantess concubines, Rindr and Gunnlöd, the mother-in-law of Sif, Thor's wife, daughter of Nótt, and sister of Auðr and Dagr.[5][6]

Poetic EddaEdit

In Lokasenna, Thor is called Jarðar burr ("son of Jörð").[7][8]

In the same verse in Völuspá, he is referred to as mǫgr Hlóðyniar and Fjǫrgyniar burr (child of Hlóðyn, Fjörgyn's child).[9][10] The otherwise unknown Hlóðyn was therefore another name of Jörð.[11] She is usually thought to be identical with Hludana, to whom Roman votive tablets have been found on the Lower Rhine.[12]

NotesEdit

  1. Orchard (1997:98).
  2. "Earth" in Online Etymology Dictionary.
  3. Gylfaginning 10, 36.
  4. Haukur (2008:159—168).
  5. Lindow (2001:205).
  6. Skáldskaparmál 33 (24).
  7. Lokasenna 58.
  8. In Hárbarðsljóð 9, Thor calls himself son of Odin and brother of Meili, who therefore may also be Jörð's son.
  9. Völuspá 53 (56).
  10. Dronke (1997:22).
  11. Lindow (2001:206).
  12. Dronke (1997:150).


ReferencesEdit

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FamilyEdit

Jotun Genealogy in Norse mythology Names in Bold are Vanir Names in Italics are Æsir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ymir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Þrúðgelmir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bergelmir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bölþorn
 
Naglfari
 
 
Nörvi
 
Delling
 
 
 
Aurgelmir
 
 
 
Fornjót
 
Ölvaldi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mímir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Iði
 
Gangr
 
Þjazi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bestla
 
Borr
 
 
 
 
Nótt
 
 
 
 
 
Dagr
 
Fárbauti
 
Laufey
 
Kári
 
Logi
 
Rán
 
Ægir
 
Gymir
 
Aurboða
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nerthus
 
Njörðr
 
Skaði
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vili
 
 
 
 
Auðr
 
 
 
 
 
 
Annar
 
Helblindi
 
Býleistr
 
 
 
 
 
Glöð
 
 
Eisa and Eimirya
 
Nine Maidens
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gerðr
 
Freyr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sigyn
 
 
 
 
 
Loki
 
 
 
 
Angrboða
 
Heimdall
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Óðinn
 
Jörð
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Narfi
 
Vali
 
 
 
 
Jörmungandr
 
Hel
 
Fenrir
 
Hyrrokkin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Þórr
 
Sif
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Svaðilfari
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sleipnir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sköll
 
Hati
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Æsir
 
 
 
 
 
Frigg
Æsir Genealogy in Norse mythology Names in Bold are Giants/Giantesses Names in Italics are Vanir Rindr was a human princess
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bölþorn
 
 
 
 
Búri
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fjörgynn
 
Mímir
 
 
 
Bestla
 
Borr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vanir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frigg
 
 
 
 
 
 
Óðinn
 
Vili
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nanna
 
Baldr
 
Höðr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Forseti
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
With Jörð
 
 
 
 
 
With Gríðr
 
 
With Unknown mothers
 
With Rindr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sif
 
Þórr
 
Járnsaxa
 
Víðarr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Váli
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Þrúðr
 
Móði
 
Magni
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Iðunn
 
 
 
Bragi
 
Hermóðr
 
Týr
 
Hœnir
 
Nepr
 
Nep
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Baldr
 
Nanna
 

External Links Edit

References Edit


Norse mythology articles
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Races Æsir | Vanir | Jotnar | Elves | Dwarves | Valkyries | Einherjar | Norns
Worlds Asgard | Álfheimr | Midgard | Jötunheimr | Vanaheimr | Muspelheim | Niflheim | Svartálfaheim | Helheim
Locations Bifröst | Utgard | Valhalla | Fólkvangr
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