Khumban, also: Khumbume, Khumba, Humban, Humba, Humman, Humpan, Huban, (meaning: "Commander"[1]) is a sky[2][3] and earth god[4] in Elamite mythology.[5] Khumban was married to the mother goddess Pinikir.[6][7] Some sources state that he later divorced her and remarried the "Great Goddess" Kiririsha, [8][9] 'Lady of Liyan'.[10]

Over 20 Elamite kings were named in honour of Khumban baring theophoric names.[11]


  1. From the Elamite verb huba, "to command"; See: Leick, G. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology, p.84
  2. Black & Green. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, p.74
  3. Leeming, D. A. Jealous Gods and Chosen People: The Mythology of the Middle East, p.42
  4. Haycock, Daniel E. Being and Perceiving, p.453
  5. Edwards, I.E.S. Cambridge Ancient History, Volume I, Part 2: Early History of the Middle East [3rd edition] (31 Oct 1971), p.665
  6. Bromiley, Geoffrey W. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia – Volume Two: E-J", p.52
  7. Leick, G. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology, p.84
  8. Edwards (1971), p.665
  9. Lurker, M. The Routledge dictionary of gods and goddesses, devils and demons, 2nd edition (27 May 2004), p.2, ISBN 978-0-415-34018-2
  10. A title dedicated to an Elamite port on the Persian Gulf (near modern-day Bushire, Iran).
  11. See: List of rulers of Elam

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