The Manticore (Early Middle Persian: Martyaxwar) is a big, legendary creature of Greek and Persian myths. It is similar to the Sphinx in that they are both evil and mashups of different animals.
Origin and Etymology
The manticore myth was of Persian origin, where its name was "man-eater" (from early Middle Persian مارتیا martya "man" (as in human) and خوار xwar- "to eat"). The English term "manticore" was borrowed from Latin "mantichora", itself derived from the Greek rendering of the Persian name, "μαρτιχώρα", "martichora".
Originally documented in Persia, the feared man-eating Manticore or Manticora, has said to been sighted in places as varied as the jungles of Brazil and Indonesia and, more rarely, the forests of North America and Europe.
It is described as having the head of a human, body of a lion and a tail of poisonous spines, similar to porcupine quills. There are some recounts that the spines can be shot like arrows, thus making the manticore a lethal predator. It eats its victims whole, using its triple rows of teeth, and leaves no bones behind.
A Manticore's face is said to resemble a human's, and travelers through marshes have reported mistaking a manticore for a bearded man from a distance.
The picture to the left is a depiction from a woodcut from 1607, showing how the features often confused those that saw it.
Manticores have a melodious call, like the lower notes on a flute blown together with a trumpet. Despite the beauty of the sound, most animals know to flee when they hear it. Humans would do well to follow their lead.
It passed into European folklore first through a remark by Ctesias, a Greek physician at the Persian court of King Artaxerxes II in the fourth century BC, in his notes on India ("Indika"), which circulated among Greek writers on natural history but have not survived. The Romanised Greek Pausanias, in his Description of Greece, recalled strange animals he had seen at Rome and commented,The beast described by Ctesias in his Indian history, which he says is called martichora by the Indians and "man-eater" (androphagos) by the Greeks, I am inclined to think is the tiger. But that it has three rows of teeth along each jaw and spikes at the tip of its tail with which it defends itself at close quarters, while it hurls them like an archer's arrows at more distant enemies; all this is, I think, a false story that the Indians pass on from one to another owing to their excessive dread of the beast. (Description, xxi, 5) Pliny the Elder did not share Pausanias' skepticism.
He followed Aristotle's natural history by including the martichoras—mistranscribed as manticorus in his copy of Aristotle and thus passing into European languages—among his descriptions of animals in Naturalis Historia, c. 77 AD.Later, in The Life of Apollonius of Tyana Greek writer Flavius Philostratus (c. 170–247) wrote: And in as much as the following conversation also has been recorded by Damis as having been held upon this occasion with regard to the mythological animals and fountains and men met with in India, I must not leave it out, for there is much to be gained by neither believing nor yet disbelieving everything. Accordingly Apollonius asked the question, whether there was there an animal called the man-eater (martichoras); and Iarchas replied: "And what have you heard about the make of this animal ? For it is probable that there is some account given of its shape." "There are," replied Apollonius, "tall stories current which I cannot believe; for they say that the creature has four feet, and that his head resembles that of a man, but that in size it is comparable to a lion; while the tail of this animal puts out hairs a cubit long and sharp as thorns, which it shoots like arrows at those who hunt it."Pliny's book was widely enjoyed and uncritically believed through the European Middle Ages, during which the manticore was sometimes illustrated in bestiaries.
The manticore made a late appearance in heraldry, during the 16th century, and it influenced some Mannerist representations, as in Bronzino's allegory The Exposure of Luxury, (National Gallery, London) — but more often in the decorative schemes called "grotteschi"— of the sin of Fraud, conceived as a monstrous chimera with a beautiful woman's face, and in this way it passed by means of Cesare Ripa's Iconologia into the seventeenth and eighteenth century French conception of a sphinx.
- In the Divine Comedy, Geryon is depicted as a manticore-like demon that dwells at the deep barrier between the circles of violence and fraud.
- Canadian writer Robertson Davies wrote a novel titled The Manticore, published in 1972. It is the second volume of his Deptford Trilogy.
- The Manticore and Other Horrors is the tenth studio album by English extreme metal band Cradle of Filth.
- A manticore is depicted on the cover of The Return Of The Manticore, a 4-disc retrospective album by progressive rock musical ensemble Emerson, Lake and Palmer (ELP).
- "The Worm Ouroboros" by E. R. Edison has an account of a victorious fight against a manticore by Lord Juss and Brandoch Daha.
- Canadian heavy metal band 3 Inches of Blood has a bonus track on their second album titled "Quest for the Manticore", about hunting the mythical beast.
- Author Madeleine L'Engle features manticores as background characters in her book Many Waters, set in the Antediluvian Near East
- While Harry, Ron, and Hermione are researching legal precedents for Buckbeak's defence in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, they find a case where a manticore savaged someone in 1296, and was acquitted because nobody dared to approach it.
- Rubeus Hagrid somehow managed to acquire Manticores, and got them to breed with fire crabs, creating the hybrid Blast-Ended Skrewts.
- Manticores appear in George R.R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series, though in his universe, live manticores are scorpion-like insects with markings resembling a human face on their carapace. They are valued for their venom, which is lethal and incurable, making it a favourite poison. The mythical creature in its traditional form also appears as a heraldic device.
- A manticore appeared in the Percy Jackson and the Olympians series book three by Rick Riordan. In this series, a French military school teacher has the ability to shapeshift into a manticore.
- One also appeared in the movie Percy Jackson and the Sea of Monsters where it looked like a lion with a scorpion's tail.
- Manticores are favoured mounts of Dark Elf generals in Warhammer, being popular because of their power and aggressive nature.
- In God Of War: Ascension, the Manticore appears as a boss. The protagonist, Kratos, must defeat the beast in battle in order to proceed in the game.
- In Devil May Cry 3: Dante's Awakening, one of the gatekeepers of the demonic tower Temen-ni-gru is Beowulf bears a strong resemblance to the Manticore.
- In the BBC Television show Merlin, the Manticore is depicted as a small creature with a lion's body, legs, a mane, a human's head, bat wings and a scorpion's tail.
- The manticore was a monster in Scooby-Doo! Mystery Incorporated.
- The Manticore appears in the video game "Final Fantasy XI" with a much different form but still sort of resembles a lion.
- The manticore is usually depicted with wings when it is seen as a ''draconic'' creature but does not in modern depictions. It can be assumed that some manticores DO have wings and some don't.
- The venom they secrete from their tails is highly toxic and fast acting. The sting itself is also depicted as being razor sharp and it may or may not have the ability to shoot spikes at its opponents.
- The manticore is not as intelligent as a human but rather like the wild animal.