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In both Norse mythology and history, the runes were ancient letters used in the earliest alphabets of the Norse. The Runic language is also known as Futhark because of the first 6 letters.

Runes

Futhark Runes
Rune Transliteration IPA Proto-Germanic name Meaning
Runic letter fehu svg f /f/ *fehu "wealth, cattle"
Runic letter uruz svg u /u(ː)/ ?*ūruz "aurochs" (or *ûram "water/slag"?)
Runic letter thurisaz svg þ /θ/, /ð/ ?*þurisaz "the god Thor, giant"
Runic letter ansuz svg a /a(ː)/ *ansuz "one of the Æsir (gods)"
Runic letter raido svg r /r/ *raidō "ride, journey"
Runic letter kauna svg k /k/ ?*kaunan "ulcer"? (or *kenaz "torch"?)
14x30px g /ɡ/ *gebō "gift"
14x30px w /w/ *wunjō "joy"
14x30px 14x30px h /h/ *hagalaz "hail" (the precipitation)
14x30px n /n/ *naudiz "need"
14x30px i /i(ː)/ *īsaz "ice"
14x30px j /j/ *jēra- "year, good year, harvest"
14x30px ï (or æ) /æː/(?) *ī(h)waz/*ei(h)waz "yew-tree"
14x30px p /p/ ?*perþ- meaning unclear, perhaps "pear-tree".
14x30px z /z/ ?*algiz unclear, possibly "elk".
14x30px File:Runic letter sowilo variant.svg s /s/ *sōwilō "Sun"
Runic letter tiwaz svg t /t/ *tīwaz/*teiwaz "the god Tiwaz"
14x30px b /b/ *berkanan "birch"
14x30px e /e(ː)/ *ehwaz "horse"
14x30px m /m/ *mannaz "Man"
14x30px l /l/ *laguz "water, lake" (or possibly *laukaz "leek")
14x30px ŋ 16px ŋ /ŋ/ *ingwaz "the god Ingwaz"
14x30px o /o(ː)/ *ōþila-/*ōþala- "heritage, estate, possession"
14x30px d /d/ *dagaz "day"


Norse mythology articles
Major Deities Odin | Thor | Freyr | Freyja | Frigg | Loki | Baldr | Týr | Njörðr
Races Æsir | Vanir | Jötunn | Elves | Dwarves | Valkyries | Einherjar | Norns
Realms Álfheimr | Asgard | Jötunheimr | Midgard | Muspelheim | Niðavellir | Niflheim | Svartálfaheim | Vanaheimr
Abodes Breidablik | Fólkvangr | Þrúðheimr | Utgard | Valhalla
Topics Æsir-Vanir War | Ginnungagap | Poetic Edda | Prose Edda | Ragnarök | The Sagas | Yggdrasil

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