Týr (/tɪər/; Old Norse: Týr [tyːr]) is a Norse god associated with law and heroic glory in Norse mythology, portrayed as one-handed. Corresponding names in other Germanic languages are Gothic Teiws, Old English Tīw and Old High German Ziu and Cyo, all from Proto-Germanic *Tīwaz. The Latinized name is rendered as Tius or Tio and also formally as Mars Thincsus.
In the late Icelandic Eddas, Týr is portrayed, alternately, as the son of Odin (Prose Edda) or of Hymir (Poetic Edda), while the origins of his name and his possible relationship to Tuisto (see Tacitus' Germania) suggest he was once considered the father of the gods and head of the pantheon, since his name is ultimately cognate to that of *Dyeus (cf. Dyaus), the reconstructed chief deity in Indo-European religion. It is assumed that Tîwaz was overtaken in popularity and in authority by both Odin and Thor at some point during the Migration Age, as Odin shares his role as God of war.
Tiw was equated with Mars in the interpretatio germanica. Tuesday is "Tīw's Day" (also in Alemannic Zischtig from zîes tag), translating dies Martis.
Origins and Etymology
The name Tyr originally meant "god" (cf. Hangatyr, the "god who hung" (referring to when Odin hung in a tree for nine days) as one of Odin's names; probably inherited from Tyr in his role as judge (compare with the Irish "Midir", the judge par excellence) and goes back to a Proto-Germanic Tîwaz, earlier Teiwaz, continuing Proto-Indo-European language *deywos "god", a word related to but distinct from the name of the sky-god Dyeus (in lith. both Dyeus and Deywos has the same meaning Dievas or goddess).
It should be noted however, that direct reference between Tyr/Teiw and "leader of the Gods" may be debatable. While the Proto-Indo-European origins of the term is common wisdom, "Dyaus", "Deywos" and "Devas" have always been used in a generic way to refer to the gods. "Dyaus-pater" which literally means the "father of Gods" later transformed through common uses in ancient Greece and Rome into "Zeus-pater" and then to "Jupiter" have been applied to Zeus/Jupiter and to Woden/Odin (Nordic). It is theorised Tyr was originally leader of the Norse/Germanic pantheon before being overtaken in popularity by Odin.
There is sketchy evidence of a consort, in German named Zisa: Tacitus mentions one Germanic tribe who worshipped "Isis", and Jacob Grimm pointed to Cisa/Zisa, the patroness of Augsburg, in this connection. The name Zisa would be derived from Ziu etymologically, in agreement with other consorts to the chief god in Indo-European pantheons, e. g. Zeus and Dione.
According to the Edda, at one stage the gods decided to shackle the wolf Fenrir, but the beast broke every chain they put upon him. Eventually they had the dwarves make them a magical ribbon called Gleipnir from such items as a woman's beard and a mountain's roots. But Fenrir sensed the gods' deceit and refused to be bound with it unless one of them put his hand in the wolf's mouth. Týr, known for his great courage, agreed, and the other gods bound the wolf. Fenrir sensed that he had been tricked and bit off the god's hand. Fenrir will remain bound until the day of Ragnarök.
As a result of this deed, Týr is called the "Leavings of the Wolf". According to the Prose version of Ragnarök, Týr is destined to kill and be killed by Garm, the guard dog of the realm of Hel. However, in the two poetic versions of Ragnarök, he goes unmentioned; unless one believes that he is the "Mighty One".
The Tiwaz-rune is named after Týr, and was identified with this god, the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name is Tîwaz (lith. Tevas - father, Dievas or Deivas - god). The rune is sometimes also referred to as Teiwaz, or spelling variants.
Modern Popular Culture
Although representations of Týr are less common than those of Thor, Odin or Loki, Týr is often referenced or appears as a warrior figure in many modern depictions, particularly those relating to high fantasy, usually most identifiable by his missing arm and lust for battle.
Tyr in Marvel Comics
In the Marvel Multiverse, the character of Týr is mostly the same as how he is portrayed in Norse Mythology, aside from the fact the wrong hand is missing. In fact most of the Asgardian characters are very close to the Norse Mythology they are based on.
There is a metal band called Týr
- Combat Empowerment
- Enhanced Combat
- Fear Masking
- Justice Embodiment
- Law Inducement
- Law Intuition
- Lie Detection
- War Manipulation
- War Inducement
Today several people carry a name based on the name of the old god. Such as Valtýr, Angantýr, Hjálmtýr etc. The English word Tuesday, and its other Scandinavian/Germanic equivalents are directly descended from Tyr/Teiwaz
- Tyr the Wiki page.
- Týr Official Site A Viking Metal Band from The Faroe Islands
- Marvel Tyr Tyr in the Marvel Database Wiki
- Bio Tyr More of Tyr in Marvel Comics on The Immortal Thor.net
|Gods and goddesses of Norse mythology|
|Gods||Baldr • Bragi • Dellingr • Freyr • (Ingunar-Freyr • Yngvi) • Forseti • Heimdallr • Hermóðr • Höðr • Hœnir • Ítreksjóð • Kvasir • Lóðurr • Loki • Máni • Magni • Meili • Mímir • Móði • Njörðr • Odin • Óðr • Thor • Týr • Ullr • Váli • Vé • Víðarr • Vili|
|Goddesses||Bil • Eir • Freyja • Frigg • Fulla • Gefjon • Gerðr • Gersemi • Gullveig • Gná • Hlín • Iðunn • Ilmr • Irpa • Lofn • Nanna • Njörun • Rán • Rindr • Sága • Sif • Sigyn • Sjöfn • Skaði • Snotra • Sól • Syn • Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr • Þrúðr • Vár • Vör • Hnoss • Sister-wife of Njörðr|